New South Wales (UNSW) engineers have invented a radical new quantum computing architecture based on new "quantum quintile quotient flip-flops", which promises that big quantum chip production will be dramatically cheaper – and simpler – but thought it was possible at all.
The new design of the chip, described in detail in Nature Communications opens up the possibility of a quantum processor that can be enlarged without precise atomization, which is needed in other approaches. More importantly, it enables qubit – the basic units of information in a quantum computer – to be located at hundreds of nanometers of distance and still remain spareni.
The design was designed by a team led by Andrea Morello, program manager at the Center for Excellence in Quantum Computing and ARC (COC2T) Communications at UNSW in Sidney, who said that making a new design should be readily available in today's technology.
Guilherme Tosi, research associate at CQC2T, has developed this pioneering concept together with Morella and co-authors Fahd Mohiyaddin, Vivien Schmitt and Stefanie Tenberg of CQC2T, with Rajib Rahman and Gerhard Klimeck from the Purdue University of America.
"It's a brilliant design, and like many such conceptual jumps, it's unbelievable that no one has ever remembered it before," Morello said.
"What Guilherme and the team have invented is a new way of defining the" spin qubit "that uses both the electron and core atom. Keyly, this new qubit can be controlled by electrical signals instead of magnetic. Electrical signals are much easier to distribute and localize within the electronic chip. "
It is true that design overrides the challenge with which all silicon-based qubit-based applications are built while teams have built a larger and larger field of qubit: the need to distance them at a distance of just 10-20 nanometers or the distance between only 50 atoms.
"If too close, or too far, the" interwoven "quantum bits – what makes quantum computers so special – does not happen," Tosi said.
Scientists from the UNSW are already leading the world in producing spin cubic meters – with a momentum – on this scale, said Morello. "But if we want to create a thousand or millions of cubic feet so close to one another, it means that all control lines, control electronics, and readers must be made on that nanometric scale with that density of electrodes. This new concept suggests another way. "
At the other end of the spectrum are superconducting circles – pursued by IBM and Google – and ion traps. These systems are large and easier to do, and currently run on the number of operating cubits. But due to their large dimensions, they can face challenges long when they try to compile and work with millions of cubic feet, as they require the most useful quantum algorithms.
"Our new silicon based approach is in the optimum location," said Morello, a professor of quantum engineering at UNSW. "It's easier to produce than at-atomic devices, but still allows to accommodate millions of cubic feet per square millimeter."
In a one-dimensional enclosure used by the Morrell team and applied in Toshiba's new design, the silicon chip is covered with a layer of insulating silicon oxide, on top of which is a sample of metal electrodes working at temperatures near the absolute zero in the presence of a very strong magnetic field .
The nucleus is a phosphorous atom, from which Morell's team had previously built two functional cubicles using the electrons and nuclei of atoms. These cubs individually demonstrated the record time of coherence.
Tosi's conceptual breakthrough is creating a completely new type of cubic, using both the core and the electron. In this approach, the state of '0' cubic is defined when the spin of the electron is reduced and the spin nucleus is increased while the state is '1' when the spin of the electrons is enlarged and the spin nucleus is diminished.
"Call it a 'flip-flop' cubit," Tosi said. "To manage this cube, you need to run the electron far away from the core using the top electrodes. You also create an electric dipole. "
"This is a key point," added Morello. "These electric dipoles interact with quite large distances, a good portion of microns, or a thousand nanometers."
"That means we can now accommodate one-way cubes at a much greater distance than we thought possible," he continued. "So, there is enough space to disperse key classical components such as interconnection, control electrodes, and reading devices, while retaining the precise atomic nature of the quantum bit."
Morello described Tosi's concept as significant as the original work of Bruce Kane, published in Nature 1998. Kane, a senior research associate at UNSW, has hit a new architecture that could help silicon-based quantum computers learn part of reality – triggering an Australian race to build a quantum computer.
"Like Kane's work, this is the theory, the proposal – the cubit must only be built," MMorello said. "We have preliminary experimental data suggesting that it is fully feasible, so now we're doing the demonstration. But I think this is equally visionary as Kane's original work. "
The construction of a quantum computer is called a "space race of the 21st century" – a difficult and ambitious challenge with the potential to deliver revolutionary tools for solving otherwise inaccessible calculations with a wealth of useful applications in healthcare, defense, finance, chemistry and material development, software elimination mistakes, aviation and transportation. Its speed and power lies in the fact that quantum systems can accommodate multiple "superposition" of different initial states, and in the ghostly "intertwining" that only appears at the quantum level of the fundamental particles.
"We will need great engineering to bring quantum computation into commercial reality, and the work we see from this extraordinary team puts Australia in the driver's seat," said Mark Hoffman, Dean of Engineering at UNSW. "This is a great example that UNSW, like many other leading global research universities, is at the heart of a sophisticated global knowledge system that shapes our future."
The UNSW team has made 83 million Australian dollars in a tough deal between UNSW, telecommunications telescope Telstra, Australian Commonwealth Bank, and Australian and New South Wales governments to develop, by 2022, a 10-cubic protype of silicon quantum integrated circuit – the first step in building the world's first silicon quantum computer
In August, partners launched Silicon Quantum Computing Pty Ltd, the first Australian quantum computing company, to enhance the development and commercialization of this technology's unique technology. The Government of New South Wales has promised 8.7 million Australian dollars, UNSW 25 million, Commonwealth Bank 14 million, Telstra 10 million, and federal government 25 million US dollars.
The article was originally published on phys.org .