Less than 200 Hadjah people live as a people of hunters and gatherers near the coast of Eyas Lake in Tanzania. In a study released a few days ago in Science a team led by Justin Sonnenburg from Stanford showed that the microbial composition of the intestines – the ecosystem of the human body – changes with the Tanzanian seasons. Authors have found a clear discrepancy between the microbes of non-industrialized and industrialized populations
These results "provide evidence that once there was a common type of microbial that followed people tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands of years, as we expanded on the planet," Sonnenburg said. "It is astonishing that the kind of microbiology that the people of Hajja show during their seasons are the same species we have lost in the industrialized world. Something related to fluctuations in microbiology makes certain types vulnerable and subject to loss for some reason, due to diet or something else. "
In order to better understand the microbes of modern hunters and collectors, Sonnenburg and colleagues collected 350 specimen stools of 188 Hadda individuals for 12 months. The analysis of the genomes and data from the previous study revealed that the microbiology of Hadža people is more diverse during the Tanzanian drying periods than during wet, and the samples from a single dry season are the same as those from other dry periods
The bacteria tree dropped during the rainy periods, while the order of firmikuta remained stable. Repeated sampling of eight microbial compositions during different seasons showed that some other rows – like spiroheta – drop below detection limits during the humid period.
Authors have found that the production of enzymes that microbes use to digest carbohydrates also seasonally varies. In dry periods when most of the food of the people of Hajj is caught prey, there is a greater variety of these enzymes than during wet times, when Hadzes often eat berries and honey.
Manufactured microbioms have lower enzyme diversity, and lower enzyme levels that primarily serve for plant digestion.
Scientists have pooled microbial data from other nonindustrialized research groups around the world and compared them with the intestinal flora analysis of industrialized populations. The microbiologies of nonindustrialized groups were mutually similar to those of industrialized areas microbiologically collected together. The authors found that a group of microbes that seasonally varied among the people of Hadža mostly lacked in industrialized microbes, but is present in the microbes of people living alike.
Amanda Henry, anthropologist at Leiden University in the Netherlands, did not take part in this study, but conducted a preliminary research on Hadzha microbiology, and refrained from the view that Microbiology Hadjah people is an ideal and wholly healthy intestinal flora we should strive to and explains that their microbiologies do not necessarily reflect those of human beings. Though they live as hunters and collectors, the Hostages have been experimenting with their microbes as long as industrialized societies have experimented with their own, she says.
"We can say that these differences exist, but we do not know what that means," explained Amanda Henry. "In some cases, the correlation between health and disease and certain bacterial communities can be retarded, but we still face a problem like that of a hen and egg."
"In order to go further with this research, we need to study what microbes we have lost," said Jens Walter, a biologist from the University of Alberta, Canada, who was not involved in the study. "For now we know that they are lost, and we have this attractive hypothesis that their loss contributes to the development of Western disease, but we do not have enough functional research to prove it."
The Sonnenburgov team is already working on isolating and characterizing the microbial biology of Hadži people. Within a short time, the team will investigate the function of microbe in non-germic mice, and then it will also prevent human research.
"We are entering the eruption where many people in the field will think about changing microbials to affect human health," Sonnenburg said. "This research suggests that the palette of microbes that will be used to reprogram the human microbial will be much larger than we previously thought, while sequencing only other industrialized peoples."
The article was originally published in the journal The Science .