Monkeys, namely, have metacognition.
The research published in the journal Royal Society B reveals that monkeys possess metacognition, ie the ability to understand whether they know something or not. Metacognition is, in short, a set of cognitive processes about their own cognitive processes.
Study was conducted by University of Rochester. The human ability of refusing to answer the question was explored when they were previously aware that they did not know the correct answer. This study was based on the idea of how easy it is to hear, see or perceive.
Monkeys are displayed on the screen during the study. After watching, monkeys had to recognize a certain symbol from a series of other symbols and had to bet on how confident it was the same image. They could bet up to three chips, but if they bet with the highest amount of chips then they would lose everything in the event of a mistake. If they bet only with one chip, they would have received a chips regardless of whether they were right or not. Also, a certain number of monkeys chips provide a treat.
It was found that monkeys usually placed high bets when they were sure it was the same symbol. This happened most when the repeat symbol had a great contrast. If the contrast was reduced and the symbol was a little less clear, monkeys usually decided to buy a lower bet, which means they were less confident in their response.
"Metacognition is a quick way of making a judgment on whether you know the answer or do not know it," said Stephen Ferrigno, lead author of the study. "The same happens with monkeys. If they look at the image well and recognize it easier, they will be more secure in that response and will bet more chips in the bet. "
It is believed that the aforementioned study will help us understand how metacognition develops in children. This ultimately can lead to good or bad learning, predicting which circumstances will enable most metacognitions.
"People have a series of metacognitive illusions, ie false beliefs about how to learn or remember best," said Jessica Cantlon, co-author of the study. "Studying metacognition with inhumane primates could provide us with a basis for studying meta-diagnosis in children. "