Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, and Richard Henderson won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the "development of cryo-electronic mircoscopy to determine the high-molecular biomolecule structure in solution," the Nobel Committee said on Wednesday.
Crioelectronic microscopy is a "cold method of recording material of life," said Nobel Committee member Göran K. Hansson of Stockholm. This development enables scientists to visualize proteins and other biological molecules at the atomic level.
Dubochet, a Swiss citizen, is a professor at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland. Joachim Frank, born in Germany, is a professor at Columbia University in New York. Richard Henderson is from Scotland and is employed at Cambridge University in Britain.
Scientists need to hold molecules in place to sharpen images at ultra high resolution. Other microscopic techniques, such as X-ray crystallography, are much more rigid than cryoelectronic microscopy.
Biochemist Peter Brzezinski of the University of Stockholm said on Wednesday that the future of cryoelectronic imaging will not only trigger "frozen" images, but will record molecules on the move, filming films that will illuminate the world at the atomic level.
Sweden The Royal Academy of Sciences has awarded 109 awards in the field of chemistry. Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, pioneer of physical chemistry, received the inaugural award in 1901.
Last year the Nobel Committee recognized three chemists who made the right micro machines: with engines of just a few molecules. Scientists have canceled the molecular equilibrium to design demand-driven shapes, such as microscopic wheels.
For this year's awards, some Nobel laureates referred to John B. Goodenougha (94) who invented a lithium-ion battery.
CRISPR-Cas9 genetic modification system was also often mentioned as a candidate during the Nobel Prize award season.
Microbes have developed CRISPR to defend against viruses. Scientists have handled CRISPR as a tool for genetically engineered genes, demonstrating something that some scientists would call potential worthy Nobel.
In a recent study, biologists were breeding butterflies with strange new colors on the wings. Others have created the first mutants.
Genetics have implanted black and white film into bacteria E. coli using CRISPR to store pixels as pieces of DNA.
But the controversy over who should be credited for work – a dispute over a patent in which MIT and Broad at Harvard and the other University of California at Berkley were opposed – could have affected CRISPR not getting the Nobel Prize, because the board is limited by the rule that a maximum of three winners can award a prize.
Nobel Prize for Literature will be awarded on Thursday, and Nobel Peace Prize winners will be announced on Friday. The award for economics, which did not exist in the original plan but is being carried out in memory of Alfred Nobel, will be published on Monday.