Three Americans Will Share This Year's Award for Medicine
Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young have isolated a gene that controls our biological clock and has become this year's Nobel Prize winner for physiology and medicine. "For the discovery of molecular mechanisms that control circadian rhythm," Thomas Perlmann told Secretary of the Nobel Committee of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm.
As we know, the Earth's rotation around its axis leads to shifts of day and night, and this rhythm has adapted to the living world of our planet. It has long been known for a long time that living beings, including us humans, possess an internal, biological clock.
Even in 1729, Jean-Jacques d'Ortous de Mairan, a French scientist, was aware of this existence thanks to the mimics that continue to close and open their leaves in the day and night rhythms even when it is in the darkness
Why was this the remainder of the enigma until 1984 when Michael Rosbach and Jeffrey Hall, using wine flies, isolated the genus called period . It was about the genus that controlled the biological biological rhythm at the cellular level. They showed that this gene encodes a protein that accumulates in cells in the course of the night, then degrades in the course of the day.
At the same time, Michael Young discovered, also by means of wine flies, a genus termed timeless that produces another protein that binds to the protein period and helps him enter the cell nucleus. doubletime later sets the biological clock so that our cells work in a 24-hour, ie circadian rhythm (from Latin words around 19459007), meaning around and diem meaning day)
Observed by wine flies, this biological inner clock works on the same principles in humans and regulates our sleep, behavior, hormone levels, body temperature and metabolism by acting. How the disruption of an internal biological clock affects humans is best seen in the course of a journey when several time zones change after which jet lag is followed. Similarly, it is noticed during the summertime calculation of winter time in winter and vice versa. "Discovery explains how plants, animals, and humans adapt their biological rhythms by synchronizing the Earth's rotation around their axis," is part of the Karolinska Institute's statement.
All three of the listed laureates were born in the United States. Jefrey C. Hall (72) is a professor emeritus at the University of Maine and Brandeis University. Brandeis also works for Michael Rosbach (73) and Michael W. Young (68) is a professor at the Rockefeller University in New York. The aforementioned three, apart from the highest scientific acknowledgment, will also share a million dollar prize.
"It has long been speculated that this area of research could win the Nobel Prize. It is a great acknowledgment of the circadian rhythm research that is closely related to our health and illnesses including diabetes, obesity, cancer and cardiovascular disease, "said Frank A. J. L. Scheer of Harvard.